Are the weight loss and sport performance ingredients caffeine and DMAA safe for human use?

Safety profile of caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine supplementation in healthy men

From Human and Experimental Toxicology

Supplements containing DMAA (1,3-dimethylamylamine) have been the center of some controversy, particularly in the UK, recently. It was revealed that an inquest found that Claire Squires, 30, who collapsed and died on the final stretch of the London marathon last April had DMAA in her system. The coroner said she died of cardiac failure caused by extreme exertion, possibly complicated by DMAA toxicity. Until now, no investigation has determined the safety profile of chronic intake of caffeine or DMAA, alone or in combination, within the same study design. In this study a total of 50 young and healthy men completed 12 weeks of daily supplementation with either a placebo, caffeine (250 mg/day), DMAA (50 mg/day), or caffeine (250 mg/day) + DMAA (50 mg/day). To allow for familiarization, during week one of the study, subjects ingested one half of the required dosage. The following variables were measured before and following 6 and 12 weeks of treatment: body mass/composition, resting respiratory rate, blood pressure, 12-lead electrocardiogram, urinalysis, complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, and oxidative stress, inflammatory, and cardiac biomarkers. Results indicate that caffeine and DMAA, alone or in combination, does not result in a statistically significant change in any of the measured outcome variables.

“Much concern has been raised regarding the use of DMAA by humans, particularly in light of two case reports indicating severe adverse outcomes following oral ingestion of what appeared to be extremely high dosages of this ingredient. The present study included a relative small and recommended dosage of DMAA and caffeine in young and healthy men. When used at the provided dosages, initial findings indicate no adverse outcomes with regards to the selected safety measures. These findings do not suggest that the stimulants used in this study are safe for consumption by those who are older and/or unhealthy, particularly if they are used at much higher dosages. Further research would be helpful to extend these findings, as well as to determine the safety profile of these stimulants (and others) in populations distinct from that studied in the current investigation.”

 

Abstract

Caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine (DMAA) are widely used alone and in combination with dietary supplements. No investigation has determined the safety profile of chronic intake of caffeine or DMAA, alone or in combination, within the same study design. A total of 50 young and healthy men completed 12 weeks of daily supplementation with either a placebo (n = 11), caffeine at 250 mg day−1 (n = 14), DMAA at 50 mg day−1 (n = 13), or caffeine at 250 mg day−1 + DMAA at 50 mg day−1(n = 12). Before and after 6 and 12 weeks of supplementation, the following variables were measured: body mass/composition, resting respiratory rate, blood pressure, 12-lead electrocardiogram, urinalysis, complete blood count, metabolic panel, lipid panel, and oxidative stress, inflammatory, and cardiac biomarkers. No interaction effects were noted for any variable (p > 0.05), with little change occurring across time for subjects in any of the four conditions. With the exception of urinary pH (p = 0.05; Pre (6.5 ± 0.1) higher than week 6 (6.1 ± 0.1)) and blood CO2 (p = 0.02; week 12 (25.9 ± 0.3 mmol L−1) higher than week 6 (24.8 ± 0.3 mmol L−1)), no time effect was noted for any other variable (p > 0.05). These data indicate that 12 weeks of daily supplementation with caffeine and DMAA, alone or in combination, does not result in a statistically significant change in any of the measured outcome variables.

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Article details

Richard J. Bloomer⇓, T.M. Farney, I.C. Harvey, & R.J. Alleman (2013). Safety profile of caffeine and 1,3-dimethylamylamine supplementation in healthy men Human and Experimental Toxicology : 10.1177/0960327113475680

     
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